The parties redefine their conflict and work out a solution at a higher level, which almost invariably implies the expansion of the mandate or task of an international or national governmental agency. On the other hand, regional associations characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of elites in member states and by very sporadically shared aims have great difficulty achieving a central programmatic and institutional consensus going beyond the minimum common denominator of preserving the territorial and functional status quo; such groupings are likely to stress sovereignty, nonintervention, equality, and intergovernmental cooperation for the achievement of these minimal tasks.
Other areas Efforts at regional integration in Asia have been superficial and sporadic.
A commitment to the realization of agreedupon economic goals permits of no indefinite sabotaging of collective decisions. Functional specificity, however, may be so trivial as to remain outside the stream of human expectations and actions vital for integration.
This would seem to be the case with the standardization of railway rolling stock, for example, or the installation of uniform road signs.
International economic integration
Second, a parliamentary and quasi-legislative factor is introduced through the debates and resolutions of transnational political parties active in the European parliament. Efforts are being made to reserve joint political and military decisions to a confederal structure, which would be superimposed over the existing supranational institutions. On the other hand, regional associations characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of elites in member states and by very sporadically shared aims have great difficulty achieving a central programmatic and institutional consensus going beyond the minimum common denominator of preserving the territorial and functional status quo; such groupings are likely to stress sovereignty, nonintervention, equality, and intergovernmental cooperation for the achievement of these minimal tasks. The most dramatic illustration of the community building process is the functional and geographic expansion of the scope of western European economic integration. National bureaucracies thus tend to interpenetrate one another in the peculiar European institutional context in which integration is carried on. By correlating items in each of these types with actual situations we can then say something about the success of specific integration efforts. The possibility remains that multilaterally administered economic development and technical assistance programs will trigger a supranational institutional development. Concomitantly, a new body of law developed, regulating, for the states concerned, the new types of functional transactions. Or, in a different perspective, will not the progress of unity in Europe inevitably have its integrating repercussions in other regions and at the level. This theme will now be illustrated. Organizations grouping states with political systems, political parties, interest groups, and social institutions which differ from member to member find it difficult to make common policy on anything but the most trivial functional concerns Arab League , OAS, UN Economic Commission for Europe. Hence, organizations grouping states of widely differing power and economic potential rarely provide an ideal setting for the continuation of integration. They may achieve their agreement on the basis of differing paths of reasoning, and their desire to work together may be purely tactical or motivated by sheer expediency. Demands which spilled over from this sector thus infected the field of economics generally, resulting by in the establishment of the European Economic Community and Euratom, the latter owing its origin in part to the inability of the Coal and Steel Community to resolve a major European fuel crisis.
Momentary crises and obstacles tend to yield only if the bureaucrats agree to new central control devices. The second case would produce an adaptation with disintegrative results.
Benefits of international integration
This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Concomitantly, a new body of law developed, regulating, for the states concerned, the new types of functional transactions. Western Europe By the end of the s the six countries of the European communities may achieve economic and de facto political union with respect to all functions concerning economic and social welfare. Understanding the costs and benefits of globalisation and finding appropriate policy responses require a good understanding of how the integration process affects firms and workers at the regional level as well as the micro level. Regional organizations range from the minimal traditional intergovernmental conference to the extreme of a federation with limited purposes. Furthermore, rigid elite structures are unlikely to attain a sufficient degree of instrumental receptivity to the aspirations of others. Western Hemisphere The same is true of the OAS, which unites a very heterogeneous collection of states and elites. On the other hand, they are urged to assist sectors, regions, firms, and individuals to exploit the benefits of the internationalisation process. The aims motivating the actors are —to them—manifest and overt, but the logic of events transforms the consciously expected results into something not wholly anticipated in terms of dependence on new central authorities. Until the question of developing a multinational nuclear force for the alliance came to the fore in the early s, military integration had not proceeded far beyond the initial creation of joint commands, procurement systems, air defense arrangements, and intergovernmental political consultation machinery.
based on 71 review